The Direct Sale of Genetic Profiling Does More Good Than Harm
PRO (4 arguments)
Direct Sale: Direct selling is the marketing and selling of products directly to consumers and individuals away from a fixed retail location.
Genetic Profiling: Genetic profiling involves the analysis of genes for sequence variations that have clinically or otherwise been determined to be relevant in identifying individual characteristics or as a determinant or predisposing factor in health and disease.
Weighing Mechanism: Judge, when you are weighing this debate, you should weigh it on whichever side proves it can help the business and consumer more.
Genetic profiling has helped people find out if they had diseases such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, huntington’s disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Also, the results of the profiling has allowed for future generations to be informed about a genetic disease. For example, if a genetic profiling results in a man with a defect in his genes, his child would have a 3% chance of also inheriting that same mutation. In total, over 79% of all genetic profiling tests have been proven correct. This is according to The Princeton Medical Review. Also, the results are easily returned to you, quickly and efficiently. You either receive them in the mail or over the internet. That means you don’t have to go out of your way to pick up your results from an office.
Every organization and company that performs the tests has found over 95% of disease variants known so far. Thus meaning they can find almost anything. Also, these tests have proven to be 79% reliable, according to BBC. Also, judge, genetic profiling requires a small amount of DNA to work, meaning less mistakes are made. In fact, according to the New York Times, there have been an average of 5 mistakes in 2012 of the tests.
If someone knows that they have genes predisposing them to a particular disease, then they can be more vigilant to other symptoms of that disease and also discuss further clinical tests for the disease with their doctor. The percentage of our health dictated by our genetics and the faction by behavior and environment depends on individual diseases. Some diseases are entirely genetic and they are called 100 percent penetrant. Diseases such as Huntington’s disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease and Downs syndrome are purely genetic. Other, more complex diseases such as Type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis have a significant behavioral component. That means that even if a person has a genetic predisposition towards the disease there is a lot one can do behaviorally to prevent it.
Profiled offenders are 23.4 percent more likely to be convicted of another crime within three years than their unprofiled counterparts. Among offenders, this effect is particularly large for those profiled after multiple convictions and for offenders released before age 25—prime crime-committing years, according to past research. The effect is much smaller for those profiled after their first incarceration. Larger DNA databases were associated with lower crime rates from 2000 to 2008, the study finds. The estimated magnitudes imply that one common policy proposal—expanding databases to include individuals arrested (but not convicted) for serious felonies—would result in a 3.2 percent decrease in murders, a 6.6 percent decrease in rapes, a 2.9 percent decrease in aggravated assaults, and a 5.4 percent decrease in vehicle thefts. In contrast, the marginal cost of preventing a serious offense using DNA profiling is only $70—and falling, Doleac says. “My back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that DNA databases are between 100 and 1,000 times more cost-effective than these other common law enforcement tools.” The cost of collecting and analyzing each DNA sample is less than $40, according to a US Department of Justice estimate, and less than $20 in several states. And judge, The chances of one individuals DNA profile matching another persons are extremely small about one in a billion.
Compared to fingerprinting or eyewitness testimony, which both have inherent flaws and inaccuracies, DNA evidence is a highly effective way to match a suspect to biological samples collected during a criminal investigation.
Because of its accuracy, criminal lawyers increasingly rely on DNA evidence to prove a defendants guilt or innocence. DNA evidence has also exonerated people through postconviction analysis of biological samples. Since DNA analysis didnt exist until recently, a reexamination of evidence collected during older investigations can reveal that the DNA profile of the person convicted of the crime does not match the DNA profile from biological samples collected at crime scenes.
DNA profiling is often used in disaster situations when many individual bodies need identifying. The Fromelles Project in northern France is using DNA analysis to help trace First World War soldiers who died at the Fromelles battlefield. Scientists are hoping to match records of lost soldiers to human remains from the site. The project collects DNA and other information from potential relatives who believe their ancestors fought at Fromelles. It also involves forensic archaeology, genealogy and anthropology. DNA analysis was also used to identify bodies at the World Trade Center after 9/11. Family Tree DNA claims that it can determine within a "99.99 percent probability of yes or a 100 percent probability that no relationship existed" in the case of matching with an ancestor. You can even trace your DNA into where you came from, such as Europe, or South Africa. A DNA test can provide valuable information about biological relationships between potential living relatives. These tests can provide information that can lead to linking common ancestors and answer otherwise unanswered questions about a person's family tree. The results of a genetic profiling could help you find unknown family members and provide information that leads to finding out what geographic location your ancestors migrated from.